Saturday, July 2, 2016

39 Joining (sandhi) of diphthongs (eC): Section 2 of the Laghu-Siddhanta-Kaumudi (contd.)

After dealing with the sandhi of vowels, the Laghu Siddhanta-Kaumudi proceeds further with diphthongs:

Laghu 29. Eco ‘yavāyāvaḥ (Panini 6.1.78)

This actually follows right after 6.1.77 iko yaṇ aci, which we saw earlier (“the semi-vowels yaṇ= y, v, r, l substitute for the corresponding vowels iK= i, u, ṛ, ḷ (long and short), when follwed by a vowel aC”). The first term in 6.1.78, eco = ecaḥ, in genitive case singular (6/1); it denotes the entity which is being replaced, i.e. the substituend. It refers to the sounds contained in the pratyāhāra eC, or Siva-sutras 7 and 8: e, o, ai, au (what are called diphthongs in English grammar). The entity which replaces, the substitute, is the set of sounds listed in the sutra: ay, av, āy, āv (the whole collectively given a plural ending).

We have to understand carry-over by anuvṛtti of the word aci (7/1) from the preceding sutra; that is, in the environment of a following aC (vowel), the respective substitutions are made. Examples for the addition of suffixes:

Ce + ana = cayana(ṃ)
Lo + ana = lavana(ṃ)
Lau + aka = lāvaka(ḥ)

The Laghu interposes a meta-rule to control the substitution among the two sets (eC and ay-av-āy-āv):

Laghu 30. Yathā saṃkhyam anudeṣaḥ samānām (Panini 1.3.10)

The paraphrase: Yathā saṃkhyam (0, indeclinable= ‘as the number’) anudeṣaḥ (nominative singular 1/1 = ‘assiignment’) samānām (genitive pluural 6/1 = ‘of the same, similar’). Or,
“Assignment of equivalents for equal numbers of elements follows the order of enumeration” (Sharma).

In other words, assignment from one list (the substituends) to another (the substitutes) of equal number of elements, is done by matching their numerical or ordinal positions: the first with the first, etc. Here, it matches the elements ay with e, av with o, āy with ai, and āv with au.

More examples (from the Laghu):
Hare + e = haraye ‘to Hari’
viṣṇo + e = viṣṇave ‘to Vishnu’
nai + aka = nāyaka ‘leader’
pau + aka = pāvaka ‘purifier; fire’

As we can appreciate, the S-K brings together the relevant sutras where it will add to clarity; we can then begin to develop our awareness of how the different parts of the grammar hang together right from the initial stages. Here, a sutra from Book 6 is being elucidated with another from Book 1, Chapter 3.

The next succeeding sutra from Panini is also given in the Laghu:

Laghu 30. Vānto yi pratyaye (Panini 6.1.79)

The item denoted by vānto = va-antaḥ are those ending in –v, i.e. av and  āv. “The substitution of” is to be understood. The word pratyaye (‘affix’, locative case), being in locative case (7/1), denotes the right-context in which the substitution takes place; the qualifier yi denotes an affix starting with the sound y. The sutra means:
“The substitution by v-final items (i.e. av and āv) of o and au [to be understood by carry-over], when followed by a y-initial affix (an affix beginning with the letter y).

That is, the substitutions come into operation not only when a vowel or diphthong follows, but also when a y- sound follows. Examples:

Go + yam = gavyam ‘pertaining to cow’
Nau + yam = nāvyam ‘pertaining to boat’

Vasu (p.1075) helpfully throws further light on the conditions required:
1) it happens only with av and āv, which means to the sounds o and au, and not to e and ai;
2) the succeeding affix has to start with y-, so the substitution does not take place in forms like gobhyām, where the affix does not have a y-;
3) the following element has to be an affix. However, there is one exception which is illustrated by the commentator, in the vārttika; this is in words referring to distance measures,

adhva parimāṇe ca
‘And in distance measures’

go + yũti = gavyũti, ‘a distance of about four miles’; here the substitution by av has taken place, even though yũti is not an affix.

It happens in the Vedas; in normal parlance, we use goyũti.


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